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深圳盐田激光祛胎记多少钱深圳去咖啡斑多少钱With winter well and truly upon us and the festive period fast approaching, we will soon be surrounded by robins on our Christmas cards, hear stories of magical reindeer pulling sleighs and sitting down to a turkey on our dinner table.冬天已经来了,圣诞即将到来。转眼之间,我们就会被印着知更鸟的圣诞贺卡层层包围,一边听着神奇驯鹿拉雪橇的故事,一边坐到晚饭桌前享用火鸡大餐。How did these wild animals become part of our festive traditions and celebrations?这些野生动物是如何成为圣诞传统与节庆活动的吉祥物的?Robin (Erithacus rubecula) 知更鸟(拉丁学名:Erithacus rubecula)No other bird invokes the spirit of Christmas and winter like the robin. Perhaps it is because robins are one of the only UK birds that can be heard singing in the garden on Christmas day, warning off intruders from their territories with melodic song. Or is it their bright red breasts, which give a splash of colour and hope in the bleak midwinter?再没有其它鸟类能像知更鸟一般使人想起那种圣诞的节日气氛和冬日的兴致了。这或许是因为,知更鸟属于仅有的几种会于圣诞当天在花园中唱歌的英国鸟类,它们用音调优美的歌声警告自己领地上的闯入者。又或者是因为它们胸前长着鲜红色的羽毛,让身处萧瑟隆冬的人们看到一抹亮色、感到一线希望?Robins started to appear on Christmas cards in the mid-1800s after they gave their name to some of the first postal employees who wore red jackets, and who were often referred to as #39;robins’. On some of these early cards, the robin was often pictured carrying an envelope or postcard in its bill, delivering it like a postman.19世纪中叶,在首批邮局雇员中,有一些雇员身穿红色夹克衫,由此,人们常常以知更鸟的名字称呼他们,自那以后,圣诞贺卡上便渐渐开始出现知更鸟的形象。在这些早期贺卡的部分图片上,知更鸟往往用喙衔着一枚信封或一张明信片,像邮递员一样进行递送工作。Simply put, the robin gave its name to the postman and the postman gave its role to the robin. Every year since, robins have adorned our Christmas cards, stamps and other festive decorations.简而言之,邮递员因知更鸟而得了绰号,知更鸟因邮递员而拥有了人格化的角色。之后每年的圣诞贺卡、邮票和其它节日饰品上,都少不了要镶上知更鸟的图画。Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)驯鹿(拉丁学名:Rangifer tarandus)Children still wait excitedly for Dasher, Prancer and the other flying reindeer that pulled Santa Claus’s sleigh round the world to deliver their presents.时至今日,孩子们依然满心激动地等待着猛冲者(Dasher)、欢腾(Prancer)和其它会飞的驯鹿拉着圣诞老人的雪橇,满世界兜转,递送他们的礼物。Most likely these magical deer made it into festive lore because of the 1823 poem titled The Night Before Christmas. Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer was a 20th-century addition to the team, lighting the way on a foggy Christmas Eve.驯鹿最有可能是因1823年的一首题为《圣诞前夕》(The Night Before Christmas)的诗,而披上有魔力的外衣、走进圣诞传说当中的。红鼻子驯鹿鲁道夫(Rudolph)于二十世纪加入圣诞麋鹿队列,它的红鼻子照亮了平安夜雾蒙蒙的道路。Reindeer, or caribou as they are known in North America, can outperform all other large land animals with their energy efficiency – so really are a fitting choice as the legendary Christmas sleigh-pullers. Since their domestication reindeer have been a sled-puller of choice for many people in the Polar Regions.由于驯鹿(或按北美的叫法称北美驯鹿)的运动能效出色,体能胜过其它所有大型陆地动物;又鉴于许多生活在极地地区的人都选择用驯养的驯鹿来拉雪橇,因而,由驯鹿来担当传说中圣诞老人的坐骑,真真是再合适不过了。They are able to survive in the extreme cold and snow of the Arctic, withstanding extreme temperatures as low as -40°C thanks to their compact bodies, warm insulating fur and large hooves.驯鹿能够在极端寒冷、冰天雪地的北极生存下来。因其体格结实,皮毛温暖防冻,蹄型巨大,所以它们能够承受低至零下40摄氏度的极端低温。Rather than flying through the air on Christmas Eve, reindeer are more usually seen on their mammoth annual migration to the Arctic, during which the North American herds might travel for more than 5,000km.一反其在平安夜空中飞驰的形象,我们较常看到的驯鹿正在进行它们一年一度的大迁徙。为了到达北极,北美驯鹿群可能要跨越5000多公里的旅程。This extraordinary feat that can see them travel further than any other land mammal, so they are the best contender for being able to deliver presents all over the world in just one night!这种非凡的壮举,足以见它们所驰行的距离比任何其它的陆地哺乳动物都要远,所以,也难怪它们能够在短短一个晚上将礼物送达世界各地,驯鹿是当仁不让的最佳圣诞坐骑!Wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)野生火鸡(拉丁学名:Meleagris gallopavo)For many a traditional Christmas dinner would not be the same without a turkey and all the trimmings. In England it first replaced meats such as peacock, boar and goose in the 16th-century, after King Henry the VIII was said to have dined on turkey as part of his Christmas feast. But it did not start to gain popularity until the Victorian times.对许多人来说,备有各种配料的火鸡是传统圣诞晚餐所不可或缺的大菜。据称,火鸡肉首次取代诸如孔雀肉、野猪肉、鹅肉等的肉类发生在十六世纪,在英国国王亨利八世(King Henry the VIII)把火鸡肉纳入他的圣诞大餐之后。但直到维多利亚时代,这一习俗才渐渐普及开来。Native to the Americas, explorers brought wild turkeys to Europe, and their domestication was so successful that English settlers actually took them back to America to farm.野生火鸡原本生长于美洲,是探险家将其引进到欧洲。随后,人们对它们进行了非常成功的驯化,以至于英国殖民者竟然又把它们带回到美国去养殖。Turkeys are the largest member of the game bird family, which also includes partridges, grouse and pheasants. During the breeding season, or when they get excited, the colour of their head can change through shades of red, white and blue.火鸡是体型最大的狩猎野禽,狩猎野禽科还包括了鹌鹑、松鸡和野鸡。在繁殖季节中,或者当火鸡感到兴奋时,它们头部的颜色就会在红、白、蓝三色中发生变化。Beyond the festive period, turkeys are perhaps best known for the #39;gobbling’ calls made by the males to attract a mate, leading to the name #39;gobbler#39;.除了身为圣诞吉祥物以外,火鸡最为人所知的或许莫过于,雄性火鸡求偶时会发出快速的咯咯大叫声。人们也因此用“gobbler”来指称雄性火鸡。 /201511/412871深圳治疗红血丝一般多少钱 #39;Smart#39; Bandage Extracts Bacteria From Wounds新创可贴可从伤口吸出细菌In 1920, Johnson and Johnson employee Earle Dickson created the first bandage to cover the frequent burns and cuts his wife Josephine inflicted on herself while cooking. The hand-made prototype was instantly adopted by his employer and marketed as Band-Aid, a brand that has become synonymous with the word bandage. However, while the adhesive strips may now look different from Dickson#39;s creation they still perform the same job - Prevent bacteria from entering wounds. However, that may soon be a thing of the past, thanks to a new gauze that not only acts as a barrier between external bacteria and the wound, but also, sucks out the ones aly present!1920年,为了把妻子Josephine做饭过程中反复弄伤的手包起来防止感染,Johnson和他的雇员Earle Dickson发明了世界上第一个创可贴。随后,这种最初手工制作的创可贴在员工中迅速传播,并被命名为“邦迪贴”——取用英文“绷带”一词的谐音,开始对外出售。虽然现在的创可贴花样繁多,但用途不变——始终用来防止细菌进入伤口。但是,这即将成为过去,最近新发明的一款创可贴,不仅能防止细菌进入伤口,还能把伤口中的细菌吸出来。The brilliant technology that is still in the early stages of development is being spearheaded by Martina Abirgo, a Ph.D. candidate at the Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. The team began by creating nanofibers using a technique called electrospinning. Used to build artificial tissue it entails pushing polymer out of an electrified nozzle to produce strands that are 100 times thinner than a single human hair. The nanofibers were then interwoven to create the smart bandage.这项由澳洲斯威本科技大学的士申请人Martina Abirgo发起的卓越的发明,尚处初始阶段。他们团队首先通过静电纺丝技术,制造出一种纳米纤维。这种纤维最初作人造纤维之用,可以把聚合物从电气化喷嘴中分离成比发丝还细100倍的线。这些纳米纤维缠绕在一起就形成了智能创可贴。Encouraged by the results, Martina and her team collaborated with scientists from the University of Sheffield in the ed Kingdom to conduct similar tests on artificial skin. Though the results are yet to be published, the scientists say that the mesh worked as effectively on the human manufactured living tissue. The smart bandage will now be tested on humans, and if all goes well, patients and doctors will soon be able to just peel away harmful bacteria using this ingenious bandage.受这个结果的鼓舞,Martina和她的团队与英国谢菲尔大学的科学家们一起,在人造皮肤上做了相同的测试。虽然测试结果尚未发布,科学家们已宣称这种材料在人造组织上效果良好。随后,智能创可贴将在人体测试,如果进展顺利,医生和病人们就能使用这种神奇的绷带,把有害细菌从人体分离。Though such a bandage would certainly be real cool for everyday playground scrapes and cuts, the technology is a lifesaver for people with compromised immunity levels. These include patients afflicted with diseases like diabetes and cancer. The researchers believe the technology could also be used to create protective clothing.这种创可贴针对日常的擦伤和刀伤非常好用,对那些不幸患上糖尿病和癌症的人等免疫缺失的人群来说,更是救命稻草。研究者还表示,这项技术也在防护衣的制作中也可以应用。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201511/412361深圳人民医院做韩式隆鼻手术多少钱

北大深圳医院激光去红血丝多少钱深圳伊斯佑整形医院激光祛痘多少钱 A new study suggests the ritual of body art may serve as emotional therapy for young women who have experienced intense emotional pain. Sociologists at Texas Tech University discovered female college students with multiple tattoos were more likely to have attempted suicide, yet, interestingly, these very same women also reported significantly higher levels of self-esteem. Male students with four or more tattoos were also more likely to have attempted suicide, the researchers say.一项新研究表明,身体艺术的仪式或许可以对经历过严重情感创伤的年轻女性起到情感治疗的作用。得克萨斯理工大学发现,有很多纹身的女性大学生更容易试图自杀,然而有趣的是,这些女性还同时表现出极高的自尊心。研究者说,有四个或更多纹身的男性学生也更容易试图自杀。Women with four or more tattoos reported a four-fold increase in previous suicide attempts when compared to female students with none.据报道,有四个或更多纹身的女性跟没有纹身的女性相比,之前的自杀意图增加了四倍。“Paradoxically, results also indicate a statistically significant elevation in self-esteem within that same group,” wrote the researchers, who said this group of women reported “substantively” higher levels of self-esteem than their female peers.“相反的是,结果还表明相同的人群在数据上显示出极高的自尊心,”研究者写道,这些女性比其他女性同胞有着“实质上”更高的自尊心。Male students with four or more tattoos were also more likely to have attempted suicide, in their case at three times the rate of men with no ink. It is important to remember men, generally, are more likely to die of suicide, according to the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. In 2013, for instance, 77.9 percent of those who died by suicide were male and 22.1 percent female.有四个或更多纹身的男性学生也更容易试图自杀,在实验中他们的自杀率是没有纹身男性的3倍。值得注意的是,根据美国自杀预防基金会,通常情况下男性更容易死于自杀。比如在2013年,77.9%的自杀死亡人数都是男性,22.1%为女性。Following an attempt at self-destruction, the researchers of the current study speculate, body art may be a way of reclaiming a sense of self.这项研究的研究员推测,在尝试自残之后,身体艺术或许是一种重新唤回自我的方式。“Just as breast cancer survivors and abuse victims acquire tattoos and piercings to restore physical losses, we think the women in our study may be trying to restore emotional losses with more tattoos,” concluded the researchers.“就像经历过乳腺癌和虐待的人用纹身和打孔来修复身体缺失,我们认为我们研究中的女性也许尝试用更多的纹身来修复情感缺失,”研究者总结道。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201512/415543南方医科大学深圳医院打溶脂针多少钱

深圳附属医院去眼袋多少钱Michael Larson is one of the most powerful men in US wealth management you have never heard of. He is the chief investment officer for Bill and Melinda Gates Investments (BMGI), and as such is in charge of managing Bill’s personal wealth through Cascade Investment, as well as handling the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust endowment. Despite his high-profile job, he works hard and successfully to stay out of the public eye — Cascade declined to speak for the purposes of this article.迈克尔·拉森(Michael Larson)或许是你从未听说过的美国财富管理界最具影响力的人物之一。他是比尔及梅琳达·盖茨投资(Bill and Melinda Gates Investments, BMGI)的首席投资官,以此身份负责通过Cascade Investment管理盖茨的个人财富,以及打理比尔及梅琳达·盖茨信托基金(Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust)的受捐资产。虽然岗位备受瞩目,但拉森努力成功地避开了公众的视线——Cascade拒绝接受为完成此稿而进行的采访。Bill Gates hired Larson 22 years ago to take over the investment of his personal wealth, which was about bn at the time. Since then Gates’s fortune has grown to around bn (of which he has given away around half) after Larson diversified the funds out of Microsoft, Gates’s software company, and into a broad range of investments.22年前,比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)聘请了拉森接管其个人财富的投资,当时前者的资产约为50亿美元。自那时起,拉森将盖茨的财富在他的软件公司——微软(Microsoft)以外进行广泛的多样化投资,盖茨的财富已增至约800亿美元(其中约一半已被捐出)。Cascade is not a family office in the traditional sense and does not like to call itself one. It does not handle logistics, payroll or expenses for the foundation and is purely an asset management firm that invests Gates’s personal wealth. BMGI is an organisation that manages the portfolios of Cascade, the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation Trust and other entities, but again it does not label itself as a family office.Cascade不是传统意义上的家族理财室(family office),它也不喜欢被这样称呼。它不负责为盖茨的信托基金管理后勤、工资或者费用出,而完全是一家为盖茨个人财富做投资的资产管理公司。BMGI负责管理Cascade、比尔及梅琳达·盖茨信托基金及其他实体的投资组合,但它也不会给自己贴上家族理财室的标签。The way BMGI is structured allows the foundation to separate its programme work from its investments, say people close to the organisation. This has meant that more money has been created to go into the foundation’s mission to fight disease and improve education in the developing world.接近该机构的人士称,BMGI的结构可以让盖茨的基金会将慈善工作与投资分开。这意味着赚到的更多的钱都用在了该基金会的使命上:对抗疾病、提升发展中国家教育水平。Based in Kirkland, Washington, Cascade shies away from media attention. It declined to comment on its investment strategies but it is known to invest globally and across many asset classes. Its five largest publicly disclosed equity holdings are: Canadian National Railway; Republic Services, the waste removal company; Ecolab, the disinfectant maker; Femsa, the drinks group; and Deere, the maker of agricultural machinery.总部位于华盛顿州科克兰德(Kirkland)的Cascade避开了媒体的关注。该公司拒绝对其投资策略进行置评,但众所周知的是,它在全球范围内的许多资产类别都有投资。该公司公开披露的5宗最大规模持股涉及的公司包括:加拿大国家铁路公司(Canadian National Railway)、垃圾处理公司Republic Services、消毒剂制造商Ecolab、饮料集团Femsa以及农业机械制造商Deere。Cascade has holdings in property and non-technology companies. It holds around a 4 per cent stake in Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway investment group, owns 47 per cent of the Four Seasons hotel company and about 6 per cent of Bunzl, the distribution and outsourcing group. In August, it increased its stake in Strategic Hotels and Resorts to 9.8 per cent.Cascade在地产以及非科技公司也持有股份。它持有沃伦巴菲特(Warren Buffett)旗下伯克希尔哈撒韦(Berkshire Hathaway)投资集团约4%的股份,拥有四季酒店(Four Seasons) 47%的股份,以及分销与外包务集团Bunzl约6%的股份。今年8月,Cascade将其在Strategic Hotels and Resorts持有的股份提升至9.8%。Under Larson, Cascade has focused some of its attention on UK-listed stocks. In 2008, it bought a 3 per cent share of Carpetright, the flooring retailer, but has since reduced its stake. It has also invested in Diageo, the distiller, and JJB Sports, the retailer.在拉森的领导下,Cascade将一部分注意力集中在英国上市的股票上。2008年,Cascade收购了地板零售商Carpetright 3%的股份,但后来又进行了减持。它还对英国酒商帝亚吉欧(Diageo)以及零售商JJB Sports进行了投资。Cascade does not publicly disclose its performance results but it has been reported that because of Larson’s relatively conservative strategy, Cascade’s losses in the 2008 financial crisis were smaller than the industry average for the full year. Since 1995, Larson has delivered a compound annual return of around 11 per cent.Cascade未公开其业绩成果,但据报道,由于拉森相对保守的策略,在2008年金融危机期间Cascade的损失低于该行业的全年平均水平。自1995年以来,拉森实现了约11%的年复合回报率。Like Cascade, many single family investment firms are moving away from the term “family office”. Catherine Tillotson, managing partner of Scorpio Partnership, the consultancy, says: “A tour around London’s elite wealth management boutiques reveals the growing popularity of the term ‘private investment office’. Once loosely described as family offices or multi-family offices, this linguistic shift aims to put a finer point on their capabilities as independent advisers on family wealth.”像Cascade一样,许多单家族投资公司也在摆脱“家族理财室”的称谓。咨询公司Scorpio Partnership执行合伙人凯瑟琳舠洛森(Catherine Tillotson)说:“到伦敦的精英财富管理圈转一转,就可以看到‘私人投资理财室(private investment office)’一词越来越受欢迎。它们曾经被宽泛地形容为家族理财室或多家族理财室,这种用词变化旨在更明确地指出他们作为家族财富独立顾问的能力。”This change is not only happening among high-end investment firms; lawyers and accountants too are coining new phrases. “Family business consulting”, “private company services” and even “strategic philanthropy advice” have joined the lexicon of wealth management for the extremely rich, she says.这种变化不仅发生在高端的投资公司,律师、会计师们也在创造新用语。“家族企业咨询(family business consulting)”、“私人公司务(private company services)”甚至“战略慈善建议(strategic philanthropy advice)”都加入了为顶级富豪管理财富的专用词中,她说。What they signal is that family wealth investment management is big business. Across the world, Tillotson believes there are about 79,000 very rich individuals (those with personal wealth greater than m) who control roughly tn in assets. Many of them are business-owning families or those so-called “financial families”, who have sold operating businesses. When it comes to managing that money, they want to apply the best possible investment advice.这些变化显示出,家族财富投资管理是笔大生意。蒂洛森认为,全世界约有7.9万名大富豪(个人财富超过5000万美元),他们控制着约19万亿美元的资产。他们中很多都是拥有企业的家族或者是出售运营企业的所谓的“金融家族”。当需要管理这些财富时,他们希望得到最好的投资建议。“To this end they are increasingly sharing their experiences with other families via specialist peer networks, events and publications, and with their advisers,” says Tillotson. “So where once the term ‘family office’ was synonymous with the isolated management of an individual family’s wealth, today it perhaps best describes a growing body of professional knowledge and an industry in its own right that includes both specialist and general practitioners.”“为此,他们越来越多地通过专家同行网络、活动和出版物、以及他们的顾问与其他家族分享自己的经历,”蒂洛森说,“因此,曾经等同于孤立管理单一家族财富的‘家族理财室’一词,如今也许可以最恰当地描述一套越来越庞杂的专业知识以及一个本身囊括专才和通才从业者的行业。”The family office market can take many forms, from a single former executive assistant helping a patriarch/matriarch, to a 40-person professional investment organisation that also deals with personal affairs.家族理财室可以采取多种形式,可以是一位前行政助理来协助家族负责人,也可以是一个40人的专业投资机构在为家族理财的同时还打理私人事务。Bill Woodson, north America head of the family office group at Citi Private Bank, says: “While family offices take different forms, the challenges they face are very similar and, as a result, the ultimate solutions they adopt as they evolve tend to be similar, although addressed with varying levels of focus, staffing and professionalism.”花旗私人(Citi Private Bank)家族理财部北美负责人比尔伍德森(Bill Woodson)说:“虽然家族理财室的形式不同,但他们面临的挑战非常相似,因此,他们发展到后来采取的最终解决方案会趋于相似,尽管这些解决方案在焦点、人员及专业性上的水平不同。”He adds that family offices are changing and evolving in a number of fundamental ways. First, an industry has developed around supporting family offices. This allows them to outsource functions previously done in-house.他补充说,家族理财室正在经历一些根本的转变、发展。首先,围绕家族理财室已经发展出一项持性产业。这使他们可以将此前的内部职能外包出去。Second, there are more family offices as a result of the increase in wealth globally and greater information is available about best practice and resources.第二,由于全球财富增长,以及关于最佳实践和资源的更完善信息易于获得,诞生了更多的家族理财室。This helps family offices “professionalise” earlier than they would have before.这有助于家族理财室较之以前更早地实现“专业化”。Third, Woodson adds, the generational shift in control of family wealth has changed what family offices focus on and how they are structured.第三,伍德森补充说,家族财富的代际控制转移改变了家族理财室的关注点及结构。“Younger family members tend to, at a higher rate than before, focus on pursuing philanthropy earlier and on integrating philanthropy into a family’s investment activities,” he says.“比以前更高比例的年轻家族成员倾向于更早专注从事慈善事业,并将慈善整合到家族的投资活动中,”他说。 /201510/406680 The Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period春秋战国时期The Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought争鸣As an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China, the Hundred Schools of Thought (诸子)lasted from 770 to 222 .作为中国历史上一个文化与智慧迅速扩展的时代,诸子始于公元前770年,终于公元前222年。Known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought and the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (争鸣),the period saw the rise of many different schools of thought.这个时代被誉为中国思想的黄金时期和争鸣的时期,它见了不同思想学派的兴起。Many of the great Chinese classic texts that originated during this period have had profound influences on Chinese lifestyle and social consciousness lasting to the present day.不少起源于这个时代的中国古典著作直到今日对中国人的生活方式和社会意识还有着深远的影响。The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant intellectuals, who were usually employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy.这个时代的知识型社会以流动的智者为特征,这些智者被不同国家的君主任用为顾问,针对治国之道、治军之道和外交手段提出建议。Confucianism (儒家思想)is the body of thought that has arguably had the most enduring effect on Chinese life.儒家思想可能是对于国人生活最具有长远影响的本体思想。Also known as the School of the Scholars, its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of the traditional society.它还被称为学者学派,其文学遗产存在于儒家典籍中,这些典籍为传统社会奠定了基础。The representative of this thought is Confucius (孔子),he believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: “Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject.”这种思想的代表人物是孔子,他坚信政府唯一行之有效的体制必然是个体之间明确规定的关系:“君君,臣臣”。Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule property.除此之外,他主张君主以仁治国。Mencius (孟子) was a Confucian disciple who made major contributions to the sp of humanism in Confucian thought, declaring that man, by nature, was inherently good.孟子是孔子的弟子,他为儒家思想中人道的传播做出了主要贡献,宣扬“人性本善”。He argued that a ruler could not govern without the people;s tacit consent, and that the penalty for unpopular, despotic rule was the loss of the “mandate of heaven”.他认为一位君主不可能脱离人民的默许而治理国家,而不得人心的惩罚与暴虐的管理是“天命”的缺失。Another Confucian follower was Xun Zi (荀子)who preached that man is innately selfish and evil,孔子的另一位继承者是荀子,宣扬“人性本恶”,he asserted that goodness is attainable only through education and conduct befitting one;s status.他坚称教育是唯一能够获得仁善的渠道,而后天的环境会影响人的仁善。He also argued that the best form of government is one based on authoritarian control, and that ethics is irrelevant in the context of effective rule.他还认为国家治理最好的形式应建立在专治管理之上,仁义道德与有效统治的环境没有关系。Legalism (法家思想)greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government.法家思想深刻地影响了国家管理形式的哲学基础。During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century.在汉代,儒家思想和法家思想中最实用的元素被结合起来,创造了一种政府管理的新模式,这种模式一直被完整保留到19世纪末期。As the second most significant stream of Chinese thought, the Zhou period also saw the development of Taoism (道家思想).中国同样见了国学思想中第二主要的流派——道家思想的发展。Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Lao Zi (老子)and Zhuang Zi (庄子).它由传说中的圣人老子和庄子所构建。The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society;道家思想的核心在于自然境界中的个人而不是社会中的个人。according to Taoism, the goal of life for each individual is to seek to adjust oneself and adapt to the rhythm of the natural world, to follow the Way of the universe, to live in harmony.根据道家思想,每个人的生活目标应该是调整自我来适应自然世界的节奏,顺应宇宙的模式,和谐生活。The school of Mohism (墨家思想)was founded upon the doctrine of Mozi (墨子).墨家学派是基于墨子思想而创立的。Though the school did not survive through the Qin Dynasty, Mohism was seen as a major rival of Confucianism in the period of the Hundred Schools of Thought.尽管这个学派在秦朝没有得以发展,墨家思想仍被认为是争鸣学派中儒家思想的主要竞争对手。Its philosophy rested on the idea of universal love: Mozi believed that “all men are equal before heaven”, and that mankind should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love.它的理论在于“兼爱”的思想。墨子相信“人人平等”,认为人们应该通过兼爱来模仿天志。His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that our cognition ought to be based on our perceptions—our sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing—instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on our capacity for abstraction.他的理论可以被看作是最原始的唯物主义。他相信我们的认知应该建立在我们的感觉,也就是我们的感官体验例如视觉和听觉上,而不应该建立在想象、内在联系或是以抽象概念为基础的元素上。In a word, the scene of “contention of a hundred schools of thought” brought forth in the Spring and Autumn Period 2 500 years ago and the Warring States Period over 2 200 years ago and the emergence of various schools of thought and their exponents such as Lao Zi and Confucius about 2400 years ago all occupy a very important position in the world history of philosophy.总而言之,“争鸣”的景象出现在2500年前的春秋时期和2200年前的战国时期。2400年前,诸子的出现以及他们的倡导者老子和孔子都在世界哲学史的发展过程中占据了重要地位。 /201509/397298深圳北大医院打瘦腿针多少钱宝安区人民医院祛眼袋手术多少钱

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