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2017年11月21日 13:57:26 | 作者:4399医生 | 来源:新华社
Why Crafty Crocodiles May Be Sleeping With One Eye Open为什么鳄鱼睁一只眼睡觉?While for humans the expression ;sleep with one eye open; is just a metaphor to keep alert, for some animals it is a way of life. Called unihemispheric sleep, it is the ability to snooze with one eye open and the corresponding half of the brain awake, while the other half rests.对人类来说,“睡觉睁一只眼”只是对要“提高警惕”的一个比喻;但是对某些动物来说却是一种习性。一半大脑处于休息状态,另一半大脑时刻保持警惕,这种现象被称为“半脑睡眠”。Researchers believe that this talent that has been observed in marine mammals like dolphins and seals as well as numerous bird species, serves many purposes. Birds use it to keep an eye out (literally) for predators while dolphins do it to keep track of their pods and young ones. Many social animals are also believed to use the technique to keep track of any interesting activities going on around them.科学家相信,这种在海豚海狮等海洋哺乳动物和多数鸟类身上存在的天赋,实际上有很多用途。鸟儿睡眠时一只眼保持警惕是为了免受捕食者伤害,海豚却是为了看护自己的幼崽。很多群居动物也用此技能来保持对身边任何有趣活动的关注。Now researchers from Australia#39;s La Trobe University have discovered that crocodiles may have also evolved this capability. The scientists began by placing three juvenile saltwater crocodiles inside a large enclosure at the University#39;s aquarium and filming their behavior. They noticed that when left undisturbed, the reptiles spent less than an hour with one eye open. The crocodiles instead seemed to prefer snoozing with both eyes shut just like the rest of us.澳大利亚La Trobe大学的研究者发现,鳄鱼似乎也进化了出此技能。他们在大学水族馆腾出地方,圈禁了3条幼年咸水鳄并监控它们的表现。他们发现,在无外界打扰的情况下,这些爬行动物只有不到一小时睁一只眼闭一只眼。似乎大多数时间里,它们跟人类一样,是紧闭双眼睡觉的。However, things changed drastically when the researchers introduced an external stimulus. They began by bringing a new young crocodile to the enclosure. Though it was one of their own, the other reptiles immediately appeared to perk up. The researchers noticed that the crocodiles slept with one open eye directly aimed at the newcomer, for longer amounts of time.然而,当研究者们加入了干扰,情况立刻转变了。他们加了一只新鳄鱼进入围栏。虽然都是同类,其他鳄鱼还是立刻进入警戒状态。它们开始针对这个新来的鳄鱼,更久地保持一只眼睁着。If the tests are positive, it would indicate that birds, mammals and reptiles all display this behavior. The only ones that don#39;t? Land-based animals and humans that need to fully shut down the brain and eyes for a snooze. Lesku says that while we have always called the one-eyed napping animals odd it may be that they are perfectly normal!如果实验有效,我们可能会获得鸟类、哺乳动物和爬行动物都有此行为的结论。什么动物例外呢?陆地动物和人类睡觉时,才需要双眼紧闭。Lesku表示,虽然我们认为睁一只眼闭一只眼睡觉的动物奇怪,但其实这种行为才最正常不过。译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201512/413422After two remarkably successful decades at Apple, Jony Ive is used to receiving honorary recognition. Sir Jonathan, who was born in Chingford in northeast London, was knighted for “services to design and enterprise” three years ago. This week, he gained the new title of chief design officer of what has become the world’s most valuable company, in large part due to his relentless efforts.在苹果(Apple)工作20多年、取得一系列卓越成就之后,约尼#8226;艾夫(Jony Ive,即乔纳森#8226;艾夫爵士(Sir Jonathan Ive))对获得荣誉已习以为常。3年前,出生于伦敦东北部钦福特(Chingford)的他因“对设计和企业做出杰出贡献”获封爵位。上周,乔纳森爵士升任苹果首席设计官。苹果如今已成为世界市值第一的公司,这在很大程度上也得益于他孜孜不倦的努力。It hardly needed emphasising that Sir Jonathan is design supremo of Apple, and the decision to give him a grand title and promote two executives to run the industrial and software design divisions under him has divided Apple-watchers. Some regard it as a sign that Sir Jonathan is easing his way out, tired from producing a stream of innovative products such as the iPod and iPhone; others that he has accrued yet more authority.无需赘言,乔纳森爵士是苹果的设计老大,给他这个豪华头衔、提升另外两名高管在他的领导下主管工业和软件设计业务的决定,让密切关注苹果的人们分成了两派。一些人认为,这显示乔纳森爵士厌倦了不断创造创新产品,比如iPod和iPhone,在为抽身离开铺路;另一些人则认为,他获得了更高的权威。Either way, he is at least the second most powerful executive at Apple after Tim Cook, its chief executive. Some regard him as the most powerful, thanks to his symbiotic relationship with the late Steve Jobs, Apple’s founder, who once described Sir Jonathan as his “spiritual partner”. As Mr Cook put it in the official announcement of his new role: “Our reputation for world-class design differentiates Apple from every other company in the world.”无论如何,他现在至少是苹果的第二号人物,仅次于首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)。一些人认为他是头号人物,理由是他与苹果创始人史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)生前亲密无间的关系,后者曾将乔纳森爵士称为自己的“灵魂伴侣”。如库克在宣布乔纳森爵士新职位的正式通告中所说:“一流的设计带给我们的口碑,将苹果与世界上所有其他公司区分开来。”Many other companies would like to match Apple by integrating design so deeply into the creation of new products and services that it outstrips functions such as sales and marketing. It has paid off for Apple to the tune of 0bn — its current market capitalisation. Who would not want to mimic that?许多其他公司想要追赶苹果,它们将设计深深融入新产品和新务的创造过程中,以至于设计的地位超过了销售、市场等其他功能。这种做法在苹果身上已充分体现出了价值,为苹果带来了7600亿美元的市值。谁不想模仿这样的成功?The problem is that it is incredibly hard, even if a company has an equally talented team of designers. Not only is making things with more than a design flourish applied to the outside expensive, but the scope of design has expanded radically since 1925, when Philips, the Dutch company, hired Louis Kalff to polish its advertising and named him head of “propaganda”.问题在于,这样的成功极难模仿,即便一家公司拥有一同样富有才华的设计师团队。不仅制造不止有华丽外观设计的产品需要付出高昂的成本,而且设计的范围如今极大地扩大了,远非1925年荷兰公司飞利浦(Philips)任命路易斯#8226;卡尔夫(Louis Kalff)为负责润色广告的“宣传”主管时能比。The cost of listening to what designers say is illustrated by one story in Walter Isaacson’s biography of Jobs. Sir Jonathan wanted to place a recessed carrying handle in the brightly coloured iMacs that he designed in 1998, less for practical reasons than to make the machine seem friendlier to older buyers. Apple’s engineers protested that the handle would be expensive and impractical; Mr Jobs ignored them.沃尔特#8226;艾萨克森(Walter Isaacson)所著乔布斯传记中的一则故事,体现了听设计师的话要付出怎样的代价。1998年,乔纳森爵士想要在他设计的色iMac上加一个内陷的把手,这主要不是为了实用考虑,而是为了让这款电脑显得对年纪较大的顾客更友好。苹果的工程师当时表示反对,称这个把手成本高昂又不实用。乔布斯当时对这些反对置若罔闻。Good design runs deep. As James Dyson, the British inventor, argued in a recentinterview in the Financial Times, “If something looks designed on the outside but doesn’t work well, you hate it. It gives design a bad name.” Thus, designers have to work from the earliest stages on what a product is, and how it will be built, rather than making it look good once it is close to completion.好的设计需要深入产品的诞生过程。如英国发明家詹姆斯#8226;戴森(James Dyson)最近接受英国《金融时报》采访时所说:“如果某样东西外观上看起来经过了精心设计,但使用起来不顺畅,你会感到恼怒。这会让设计蒙上污名。”因此,设计师必须从初期就努力搞清楚一件产品是什么,将如何制造出来,而不是在产品接近成形时设法让它有好看的外观。One of Sir Jonathan’s heroes is Dieter Rams, the designer of Braun products such as shavers and radios. Among Braun’s design mottos is: “Good design is as little design as possible.” The tradition of being low-key and yet elegant, without any distracting details, is evident in the slim, almost austere, aluminium MacBook.为朗(Braun)设计过剃须刀和收音机等产品的设计师迪特尔#8226;拉姆斯(Dieter Rams),是乔纳森爵士崇拜的人之一。朗的设计信条之一就是:“好的设计要尽量不露痕迹。”一贯的低调而优雅,没有任何扎眼的细节,这种风格明显体现在简洁、近乎朴素的铝合金机身的MacBook上。Apple does not solely follow the German functional style of industrial design. It also draws on a more exuberant US tradition, reaching back to mid-century designers such as Raymond Loewy and Harley Earl — the man who fitted fins to Cadillacs — in the colourful versions of iPods and other products. Sir Jonathan’s team somehow manages to blend the two approaches.苹果的工业设计并没有完全遵从德国式实用风格,它还从更加活泼的美国传统中汲取了灵感。色版iPod和其他产品的设计风格可追溯至上世纪中期的一些美国设计师,比如雷蒙德#8226;洛伊(Raymond Loewy)、以及创造了凯迪拉克(Cadillac)的高尾鳍设计的哈利#8226;厄尔(Harley Earl)。乔纳森爵士的团队不知用了何种方法,居然将两种不同的设计传统融合到了一起。It is hard to remember now, but Jobs seemed to have set himself an almost impossible task on returning to Apple in the late 1990s — to resist the steady commoditisation of personal computers into a set of grey boxes containing software. By enlisting Mr Ive, he both achieved this and altered where value lay — in the integration of hardware, software and services.如今我们很难记起这一点,不过乔布斯在上世纪90年代末一回到苹果,似乎就为自己设定了一个近乎不可能完成的任务——抵制把个人电脑变成一个个装有软件的灰色盒子的日益同质化的潮流。通过把艾夫拉入伙,他不仅成功地完成了这一任务,还改变了个人电脑业务的价值所在——对硬件、软件和务的整合,这就是价值所在。That makes the field of design more interesting, important, and difficult. Philips, for example, has 500 designers working in 18 global locations, whose work has shifted from making consumer devices to thinking about the way, for example, children in hospitals react to Philips-made body scanners. The more relaxed they feel, the less the need to sedate them.这使设计领域变得更有趣、更重要、也更困难。比如,飞利浦有500名设计师在全球18个地方工作,他们的工作已从制造消费设备转变成思考设备的工作方式,比如思考医院中的儿童如何与飞利浦制造的人体扫描仪互动。儿童感到越放松,就越不需要让他们镇定下来。Sir Jonathan was given oversight of software as well as industrial design at Apple in 2012. He now has a hand in everything from the layout of Apple stores to the design of its new headquarters in Cupertino, California, and the furniture inside. Apple is working on a car — maybe a self-driving car — and he is helping to steer this project too.2012年,乔纳森爵士开始负责掌管苹果的软件和工业设计。他现在参与苹果的一切事务,从苹果门店的布置,到苹果位于加利福尼亚州库比蒂诺(Cupertino)的新总部的设计和内部家具。苹果正在研发一款汽车,可能是一款自动驾驶汽车,乔纳森爵士也参与指导这个项目。He has, in other words, made his job far bigger, extending his reach into aspects of production that an earlier generation of designers would not have dreamt of taking on. This could account for his tone of profound weariness in a recent profile in The New Yorker. He described himself as “deeply, deeply tired” and only half deflected the suggestion that he would like to return with his family to live in the UK.换句话说,乔纳森爵士极大地扩展了自己的工作范围,他的影响力在产品生产中的延伸之广,对于更早一代的设计师来说是不可想象的。这可能也是在最近《纽约客》(The New Yorker)的一篇人物报道中,他的语气中带有深深的疲倦感的原因。他说自己“非常,非常疲倦”,对于他可能想与家人回到英国生活的猜测,他并没有完全否认。“Apple’s most remarkable quality is discipline,” says Jonas Damon, executive creative director of Frog Design, a design agency. “From the top down, they dictate what the company puts its effort behind.” If being Apple’s great design dictator has become too much for Sir Jonathan, what chance do other companies have?“苹果最卓越的品质就是纪律,”设计公司Frog Design的执行创意总监乔纳斯#8226;戴蒙(Jonas Damon)说,“上层从上至下决定公司把努力投入哪些地方。”如果乔纳森爵士感到作为苹果的设计老大负担太重,其他公司还有什么机会? /201506/378542

Yahoo has abandoned plans to spin-off its bn stake in Chinese e-commerce group Alibaba under pressure from investors worried about a potentially huge tax bill and is looking at selling or spinning off its core business instead.迫于投资者压力,雅虎(Yahoo!)放弃了剥离其在中国电商集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)所持的320亿美元股份的计划,转而考虑出售或剥离其核心业务。投资者们担心,雅虎剥离所持阿里巴巴股份可能要缴一大笔税。Shares in Yahoo rose more than 2 per cent in after-hours trading in New York after people familiar with the matter said the board had walked away from the spin-off which had been announced in February and was due to take place at the end of this year.雅虎股价在纽约股市盘后交易时段上涨逾2%。此前有知情人士称,雅虎董事会放弃了今年2月宣布的剥离计划,该计划原本定于今年底实施。The Silicon Valley company will now consider spinning off its core business together with its stake in Yahoo Japan, a move that poses a much lower tax risk, those briefed on the situation said. Yahoo did not respond to requests for comment. CN first reported the news.了解情况的人士表示,雅虎现在将考虑剥离其核心业务以及其在雅虎日本(Yahoo! Japan)所持的股份,这么做的税务风险要低得多。雅虎未对记者的置评请求作出回应。上述消息最初是由CN报道的。The stunning reversal by chief executive Marissa Mayer comes months after US authorities refused to give any guidance or reassurance that the spin-off of Yahoo’s 15 per cent stake in Alibaba would be tax-free, as the internet company had originally said in February.雅虎一开始曾在今年2月表示,美国当局会给予雅虎剥离所持阿里巴巴15%股份的交易免税待遇。但数月前,美国当局拒绝就此提供任何指引或保。雅虎首席执行官玛丽莎蔠耶尔(Marissa Mayer)因此上演了这一惊人的改弦易辙。Several legal experts told the Financial Times in February that Yahoo’s spin-off risked incurring a punitive tax bill. At the time Yahoo advisers were adamant that no such risk existed under existing US tax laws.今年2月,几名法律专家曾告诉英国《金融时报》,雅虎剥离阿里巴巴股份的交易可能会招致重税。当时,雅虎的顾问们曾坚定地表示,依照美国现有的税法,不存在这种风险。 /201512/415155

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